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Orenburg State University may 27, 2019 RU/EN
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№ 6(218),31august2018

doi:10.25198/1814-6457

Pedagogics

Vyazmin Y.N. HISTORICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL FORMATION OF MUSICAL EDUCATION PHENOMENON IN RUSSIA IN XIX— BEGINNING OF XX CENTURIESFor many centuries, great philosophers, scientists, educators, teachers put the art of music and musical education on one of the most important stages of general education. Based on the rich experience of the world pedagogical practice in the field of music education, Russia has come a long way of transformation.
My study is based on the combination of historical, theoretical, cultural and musical-analytical methods in relation to the phenomena located in the designated chronological relationship of national history, general and musical pedagogy, musicology, cultural studies, sociology, philosophy of culture.
The history of Russian musical education goes back to Ancient Russia, during the period of the Russian people’s conversion to Christian teaching. Until the 19th century, spiritual music remained an obvious priority in the sphere of musical culture.The demand for Church music turned the sphere of spiritual musical culture into a musical and educational structure that brought up a galaxy of Russian composers, singers and regents. The second half of the XIX century marked a new stage in the formation and development of musical education in Russia. Democratic trends that took place in Russian society after the abolition of serfdom, the activation of all aspects of public life have outlined the sociodynamics of musical education in the direction of a diverse contingent of students. In my opinion, this was the impetus for the further development of Russian music education, in which a significant place was given to the classical direction, the study and preservation of folk art, musical folklore. It seems to me very important and timely to create at this time musical structures and the opening of musical schools. The opening of Imperial Russian musical society in 1856 in St. Petersburg, and in 1860 in Moscow, opening of conservatories in St. Petersburg (1862) and in Moscow (1866), Free musical school in Moscow (1862) became bright events for this time. I believe that the period of the second half of XIX— early XX centuries was decisive in the formation of the system of musical education in Russia.
I think that the ideas laid down more than a hundred years ago help to preserve the fundamental, large-scale character and determine the strategy of development of Russian musical education in the XXI century.
Key words: pedagogy, musical culture, musical education, folklore, Conservatory.
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Gladkih V.G., Danilova T.V. FEATURES OF PROFESSIONAL READINESS FORMATION OF THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY FUTURE WORKERSProfessional readiness is a key indicator of the quality of training of oil and gas industry future workers to work. Concretization of the features of the content and formation of the structural components of the professional readiness of future workers in the industry allows them to prepare for successful adaptation to work.
As a result of the analysis of scientific literature, we came to the conclusion that the understanding of the nature, structure and content of this phenomenon is determined by the scientific approach to its study and the specifics of the proposed employment. The understanding of their unity allowed us to characterize the features of the content and formation of the structural components of professional readiness of future oil and gas industry workers: motivational-target, cognitive, functional-active and control-evaluation. The motivational-target component includes the value attitude to the relevant working profession, adequate qualification characteristics and working conditions of the requirements for the activity, its purpose, necessary for the formation of the control-evaluation component. The cognitive component assumes the universality of the knowledge acquired by future workers of the oil and gas industry. The formation of a functional-active component is characterized by the accuracy of labor actions on model, the ability to construct them in accordance with the instructions, taking into account professional risks in the performance of activities, efficiency of solving non-standard professional tasks, rationality and validity of the choice of actions. The control-evaluation component of the professional readiness of future oil and gas industry workers includes adequate self-control and self-assessment of the implemented content of the priority components of labor activity.
We present a generalized multi-component characteristic of the process of formation of professional readiness of future oil and gas industry workers. It is understood by us as a system of universal knowledge about the technological process, embodied in professional actions, ensuring their quality performance, equipped with an adequate self-assessment of the product of labor.
Key words: professional readiness, future workers of oil and gas industry, structure of professional readiness, factors of influence on formation of professional readiness of future workers of oil and gas industry.
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Grigoryeva E.L., Bystritskaya E.V., Doronin K.N., Koryakovtsev D.A. AUTODIDACTICISM FOR PARENTS IN THE CONDITIONS OF EDUCATIONAL SPACE OF MULTI-ETHNIC SCHOOLThe tendency to increase the number of multinational educational organizations in the Russian Federation has caused a number of educational problems, including problems of overcoming the language barrier, improving the health of children of migrant workers, their full socialization and integration into the Russian-speaking community, as well as a number of others. We have determined that the source of these difficulties in organizing the educational process in the Russian-language school is the weak inclusion of parents of different ethnic groups in the educational environment of the school where their children study. The authors also revealed a lack of sufficient motivation and awareness of the objectives of such inclusion among parents of younger schoolchildren. What certainly reduces the effectiveness of the educational process in a polyethnic school. We have proposed a model for the inclusion of parents of younger schoolchildren, especially from among the representatives of non-indigenous nationalities, in the educational space, where the efforts of the family and school are coordinated in terms of the adaptation of younger schoolchildren to the conditions of education and residence, as well as full-fledged self-realization in Russian society.
In accordance with our model, education was organized for parents of younger schoolchildren on the issues of education and upbringing of their children, as well as on the formation of the necessary pedagogical knowledge of the parents themselves in the mode of autodidactics of self-education. The basic technology of interaction between teachers and parents of younger schoolchildren according to our proposed model of incorporating parents of younger schoolchildren— representatives of non-indigenous ethnic groups into the educational space of the school informing them about self-education methods and the basics of autodidactics is the online and offline technology of problem-oriented counseling.
As a result of the introduction of the model, we have identified the most effective methods of autodidacticism for parents: self-control, goal-setting, self-motivation, self-evaluation and self-correction. Based on the diagnostics according to the monitoring complex, we developed guidelines for the inclusion of parents in the multi-ethnic educational space of the school based on the methods of autodidacticim.
Key words: autodidacticism, multi-ethnic educational organization, activity of the advisory center, interaction of teachers and parents of younger school students, contents and technologies of education.
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Gubanova G.I. PEDAGOGICAL METHODOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CREATIVE PERSONALITY OF THE FUTURE JOURNALIST (LINGUASENSORY APPROACH)Modernization of the modern education system in Russia is aimed at the formation of an active, creative personality and requires the identification of objective regularities of students’ creative development, the development of new technologies for professional education in the field of heuristic competence formation. The article discusses one of the aspects of creative development associated with the formation of speech competence.
The change in the forms of communication in the rapidly developing modern world, the increasing intensity of information flows has become both a positive and a negative factor in changes in speech communications. The phenomenon of computer-mediated communication arose, which is characterized by a decrease in expressive means in the vocabulary of communicants, the replacement of colorful epithets that evoke a vivid sensual impression through the word. The impoverishment of language affects the creative process, affects creativity.
The article substantiates the attraction of new scientific research to the development of creative abilities of students-journalists to increase their speech competence and creative development; a technique is proposed for the first time in which the development of imagination and increased creativity in vocational education and personal growth can be realized through the expansion of verbal and non-verbal connections. The system of pedagogical support is aimed at the simultaneous increase of speech competence (expansion of the lexical stock of sensory words) and the development of the emotional-sensual sphere.
On the basis of theoretical substantiation and approbation, a pedagogical methodology is proposed for the first time to use the achievements of modern applied lingo-sensory in the educational process to complement the work programs of various disciplines of the humanitarian cycle. Methods of applying the approach, options for learning tasks that develop the imagination of students-journalists as the basis of creativity, and increase the differentiation of the use of sensory words and lexical expression of concepts, concepts, and terms in their oral and written speech are proposed.
The study confirmed the hypothesis that the actualization of the sensual aspect in the linguistic picture of the world is an effective factor in increasing the expressiveness of speech and the development of imagination in the paradigm of the creative, personal and professional development of a student journalist.
Key words: speech competence, creative development, vocational education, lingusensory, the world’s picture, journalism, dialogue.
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Ledovskaia O.A., Malyutina M.V. HIGH-SPEED ABILITIES FORMATION OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS BY MEANS OF LIGHT ATHLETICSThe effectiveness of the training process and performance in terms of competitive activity of football players is due to many factors, including general physical, tactical, technical and psychological training. As you know, a high level of physical abilities in general and speed abilities in particular, limits the quality level of tactical and technical preparedness of football players.
In the study we used the following methods: theoretical analysis, pedagogical observation, timekeeping, differentiation of speed characteristics, pedagogical control tests, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. For the formation of speed abilities of football players, we have proposed a technique that consists in the targeted use of the means and methods of athletics. The focus was on exercises with varying speeds in given conditions, alternating movements with different intensity. All the exercises were performed with high intensity and mental intensity, while the rest intervals were such that it was possible to perform the next exercise with a speed no less high than the previous one.
As a result of the experimental work, we found that increasing the intensity of movement training of football players through the use of more sprint exercises to bring speed performance in running to the maximum possible values for each player, significantly influenced the increase in their speed abilities. This contributed to a more rapid implementation of various technical and tactical indicators, which gave additional time to effectively solve important motor tasks in football. The high performance of the competitive activities of the university football team confirms the effectiveness of the method developed by us.
Key words: theory of development of physical abilities, speed abilities, training process, football.
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Idrisova E.S., Magomedov R.R., Shmakova N.N. FORMATION OF COGNITIVE SKILLS OF PUPILS IN THE PROCESS OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIESThe trend of a humanization of educational practice in the Russian Federation focuses public attention on formation of socially mature personality having skills to independent research activity, necessary for harmonious socialization. Research stimulates informative activity of pupils and realizes their creative potential, motivates on development of basic knowledge and abilities, promoting full self-development. The successful organization of search work of students is based on development of pedagogical innovations by the teacher aimed at self-improvement, creative activity and professional growth. Mastering a necessary set of diagnostic techniques allows to determine the level of formation of research abilities, to carry out correction of the received results.
Use of modern receptions and methods of training within realization of system and activity approach has a significant impact on socialization of the student. On the basis of the questioning which is carried out among pupils of 9–10 classes we revealed positive dynamics of the level of development of the research culture defining their personal formation and self-determination. According to us systematic use in practice of teaching history and social science of the methods aimed at the development of informative universal educational actions has a decisive influence on formation of research skills of pupils.
Thus, the organization of research activity of pupils assumes creative interaction between the teacher and the pupil where both subjects act as active participants of development of educational space. As a result, there is a successful integration of school students into society, and teachers improve the professional skill.
Key words: general education, system-activity approach, cognitive universal learning activities, research project.
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Maksimenko N.V. PROBLEMS OF STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS MOTIVATION ACTUALIZATION AS FACTORS OF THE UNIVERSITY EDUCATION QUALITY IMPROVMENTI analized urgent issues of student’s educational activities motivation at higher educational institutions. The students’ learning activities motivation increasing is an effective way to improve the results of mastering the program and improving the learning process. In order to study the learning motivating motives and determine the pedagogical conditions that would enhance the level of the students learning motivation formation, the questionnaire results analysis of Orenburg State University first and third year students was conducted. The problems arising from the disclosure of learning motivation among students are highlighted. It is described how the usage of the correctly defined and selected methods system can increase the student’s motivation to learn, which is the main driving force of the educational process. It was emphasized that communication skills should be an important professional quality for every person who graduated from a university. At the same time, active teaching methods can be used as an effective means of interpersonal interaction. The author underlines the need to increase the humanitarian subjects ranking in technical universities. It was emphasized that the university students self-education activities role should become more relevant and be a priority condition for high-quality vocational training. The system “teacher-student” is considered from the point of view of the communications psychological atmosphere significance. With the help of various diagnostics methods and the sociological data attraction that were obtained as a result of the study, the author found that the learning motivation development that influences student progress also affects the success of students in the learning process. The work also spelled out the pedagogical conditions necessary for more successful students motivation to study activities.Key words: motivation, learning motivation, students, pupils, teacher, teaching, lecturer, learning activity.
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rkova .., Mrikot .., Gluschenko Yu.N. METHODS OF STUDYING THE NESTING OF ORIENTAL WHITE STORK CICONIA BOYCIANA SWINHOE, 1873 FOR STUDENTS OF BIOLOGICAL SPECIALITIES OF HIGH SCHOOLSOriental White Stork Ciconia boyciana Swinhoe, 1873 (Ciconiiformes, Aves)— rare species included in the 1st category of Red Data Books of the Russian Federation and Primorsky Krai. Data on classification, distribution, migration, features of the organization, a way of life, ecology, biology, behavior, reproduction and development of the Oriental White Stork are used in the course of disciplines: “Zoology of vertebrates”, “Land vertebrates of the Far East”, “Ornithology”; territorial and legal protection are used in the course of discipline “Especially protected natural territories and species”.
The main factor limiting the number of the Oriental White Stork is the shortage of large trees necessary for the placement of nests. Since the second half of the last century was marked by a gradual transition to the nesting of this species on artificial structures— nonresidential buildings, supports of power lines passing nearby forage habitat, and since 1996 in the Prikhankaiskaya Lowland storks nest and on special supports, installed on the territory of the nature reserve Khankaisky” and its buffer zone.
The paper summarizes the literature data, as well as the author’s data for the period from 2014 to 2017. The Area of work covered about 50% of the territory of Primorsky Krai, which previously noted the nesting of the Oriental White Stork and about 80% of the transmission towers potentially suitable for the placement of its nests. The length of automobile routes year was about 2500km, walking about 200km in the surveyed area was found 19 occupied nests of Oriental White Stork.
Key words: Primorsky Krai, oriental white stork, Ciconia boyciana, nesting.
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Maslevich T.P., Safronova N.B., Minayeva N.L. INNOVATIVE WAYS OF APPLICANTS ATTRACTION(BASED ON RESEARCH OF FACTORS OF MOTIVATION)Attracting and retaining a potential student becomes the most important factor ensuring the success of an educational institution. In order to increase the effective admission campaign, we conducted a study to identify the main factors of motivation that influence the choice of a place of study and the direction of the educational program.
When interviewing students of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), we found that the main influence on the choice of applicants for the place and direction of study is provided by the factors: USE set (52.3%), parents' advice (47.7%) and interest in future profession (37.7%). The minimum value was provided by the preliminary vocational orientation of schoolchildren (8%). As a result, fewer respondents (21%) have an idea of the specifics of work after graduation, as many respondents (23.5%) show interest in the relevance of the chosen profession.
We came to the following conclusions. A significant number of applicants lack a conscious approach to choosing a future specialty. The result is unjustified expectations of the learning process. About half of the students are ready to change their profession. After graduating from undergraduate a significant number of respondents are not ready to continue their studies in the chosen direction. The professional orientation of schoolchildren does not have a significant impact on the choice of a future profession.
The study allowed us to formulate proposals on the organization of the work of the university admission campaign. Firstly, it is necessary to increase the professional orientation of schoolchildren in order to increase the awareness of both the applicants themselves and their parents about the features of the chosen specialty, its relevance and personnel needs in the Russian market. Secondly, during the admission campaign it is necessary to use the opportunity to form the primary vocational guidance of applicants, namely the organization of leisure activities of applicants together with students during the period between the filing of documents and enrollment. Of particular importance is the issue of preparing student volunteers to work in the selection committee, given their influence on the applicants' opinion when submitting documents.
Key words: factors of applicants’ motivation, admissions campaign, professional orientation, prestige of the profession, university ranking, influence to applicants’ choice, corporate identity of the institute.
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Moroz V.V., Sakharova N.S. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENT CREATIVITY IN THE PROCESS OF “TEACHER AND STUDENT” CREATIVE AND VALUE INTERACTIONRecently, there has been a sharp increase in public interest in the development of personality creativity. On a global scale, numerous attempts are being made to implement programs for the development of personality creativity at all levels of the educational system. Education plays an important role in the development of the creative and cultural potential of any state. The creative class makes a huge contribution to the welfare of the country, the growth of the economy and national identity.
As a result of our research, it was revealed that the “teacher and student” creative-value interaction stimulates students to active learning, which contributes to the development of their creativity, regardless of the subject being taught. We have identified the following factors for the successful development of creativity of university students in the process of creative-value interaction between a teacher and a student. First, the model of creative behavior, of which the teacher is a model. Secondly, the teacher’s true value attitude to the students' creative abilities. The creative teacher seeks to teach the skills of creative and critical thinking, the features and stages of the creative process, as well as to create a favorable environment for the development of creativity. Thirdly, creativity is more productive in a team, and the more diverse and diverse the team members are, the more interesting and original ideas will appear.
As our research has shown, the result of the “teacher and student” creative-value interaction is the professional and moral enrichment of the individual, the actualization of achievement motives, the development of creativity and the qualifications of students. We have confirmed that students transfer creativity to their livelihoods after they graduate from the university, bringing their creative ideas to life, opening up new opportunities.
Key words: student creativity, “teacher and student” creative-value interaction, development of creativity, value orientations.
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Nikitina S.O. THEORETICAL, ORGANIZATIONAL AND METHODICAL APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGEMENT COMPETENCE AND IMPROVEMENT THE EFFICIENCY OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESSVocational training issues, theoretical and organizational and methodological approaches to the management of the educational process, the end result of which is the training of competent specialists, bachelors and masters with a certain set of necessary competencies is important, since the development of both the educational cluster and the educational organization depends on this institutions) involved in the preparation of the necessary specialists in the region (country).
The current approaches to the management of the educational process need some adjustments related to changes in the educational services market, the urgent need to train specialists in the educational industry who are able to effectively carry out the educational process, manage them, and promote personal development and educational organization (educational institution).
High-quality educational service is, first of all, an effective educational process, with diagnostics at the entrance and the formation of certain competencies at the output, based on the principles of complexity, continuity, perspectivity, totality, optimality, level and reflexivity.
The conducted studies allow us to conclude that the successive approach in managing the educational process allows for the most efficient implementation of educational activities, interacting with all participants in the educational process.
Key words: competence, educational organization (institution), educational process, approach, system-activity approach, synergistic approach, communicative-dialogic approach, cultural approach, personality-oriented approach, successive approach, educational process, educational standard, professional standard.
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Prokhorova I.K. EXPERIENCE OF PEDAGOGICAL INTERACTION WITH THE SUBJECTS OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS AS A FACTOR OF PROFESSIONAL ADAPTATION OF YOUNG TEACHERSIn the professional development of the personality, the stage of professional adaptation follows the stage of vocational training and is characterized by a specific social development situation associated with the development of a new social role, the development of a new type of leading (professional) activity and psychological neoplasms (E.F.Zeer). One of the factors for successful completion of professional adaptation is the positive experience of pedagogical interaction acquired by the young teacher with subjects of the educational process: students, their parents, fellow teachers, representatives of the school administration.
The results of the study showed that experience can be considered positive, which helps to form a young teacher’s ability to overcome difficulties of an objective and subjective nature in the process of independent performance of pedagogical activity, to build constructive relations with all subjects of the educational process. Positive experience is characterized by a sense of satisfaction with the chosen profession, the aspiration for professional growth and self-improvement within the chosen profession. Negative experience of pedagogical interaction leads to doubts about the correctness of professional choice, inability and reluctance to overcome difficulties in the performance of all activities of the school teacher, characterized by a feeling of dissatisfaction by himself and the chosen profession, the aspiration to change the profession.
The experience of pedagogical interaction with the subjects of the educational process, acquired by young teachers during the period of professional adaptation, helps them to make sure of the correct choice of the profession, to determine the nearest and prospective professional plans.
Key words: young teachers, professional formation of personality, professional adaptation of young teachers, subjects of the educational process, pedagogical interaction.
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Uimanova N.A. COLLEGE STUDENT’S SELF-EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY DEVELOPMENT OF STAGESAt present time the training process of intermediate-level specialists is extremely actual. First of all it is connected with the increased attention to the preparation of specialists of the working professions and shortage of highly qualified specialists who are capable to the mobility of professional skills. The problem of training of these specialists makes professional educational institutions to revise environment and conditions of training. From our point of view involvement of students into active self-educational activity allows to prepare mobile specialists who are demanded in professional community and are able to estimate their own achievements and on this basis they can plan the further self development.
Historical and pedagogical analysis of studies which as devoted to the problem of self education allowed to reveal distinctive features of content of such notions as “self-education” and “self-educational activity”. Diagnostics of planning of self educational activity has shown that the college students are not ready enough to the full independent construction of the educational trajectory. On the basis of study of scientific literature and analyzing of pedagogical experience we reveal the main stages of development of self-educational activity of college student. Distinctive feature of given stages is their interpretation according to the courses of training and professional readiness. We believe that implementing definite tasks on every stage allows every student to develop the skills of self educational activity. That is why the teacher’s important task is to reveal certain facts that affect the efficiency of the defined process.
Submitted stages of development of self educational activity of the college student and brief description of tasks of every stage have become possible decisions of defined problem. Planning and systemacy are criteria guidelines of achievement of educational efficiency.
Key words: self-education, self-educational activity, intermediate-level specialists, stages of self-educational activity.
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Fomina M.V., Mikhaylova E.A., Aznabaeva L.M., Kirgizova S.B., Zherebyateva .. THE COMMUNICATIVE COMPONENT OF EDUCATIONAL CONTENT IN THE ASPECT OF CORPORATE CULTURE MEDICAL UNIVERSITYProfessional medical activity has a number of specific features, its success is determined not only by professional knowledge and skills, but also interpersonal communication skills. In connection with the increasing requirements to the level of communicative competence of a specialist, the formation of a communicative component of the content of education that contributes to the formation of professionally significant qualities in students of a medical University, providing a communicative basis for future successful professional activity becomes relevant.
We carried out a study on the diagnosis of the empathic ability of medical students on techniques A.Mehrabian, N.Epstein and V.V.Boyko. The study showed that 39.4% of the surveyed students have an average level of formation of empathic abilities, 51.1%— low and 9.5%— very low. In 89.6% of girls in communication dominated emotional channel, due to the greater ability of girls to enter into an emotional resonance with others. 54.5% of the boys showed the rational and 44.4%— intuitive channels of empathy. Attention is drawn to the fact that only 34.4% of students demonstrated an average ability to empathy, which indicated a lack of skills to create an atmosphere of information and energy exchange in interaction with patients, and 55.5% of respondents did not identify themselves as a subject of empathic relations in future professional activities.
Our results indicate the need for early diagnosis and further development of professionally significant communicative qualities of the future doctor at all stages of Higher education, based on the principles of corporate culture of the medical University and the traditions of the Russian medical school.
Key words: communicative competence, corporate culture of medical university, communicative qualities of the personality of the doctor.
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Khachikyan E.I., Portnova O.A. THE FORMATION OF CIVIC CONSCIOUSNESS IN EDUCATIONAL SPACE OF HIGH SCHOOLIn an era of confrontation between civilizations and the economic struggle of countries, it is important to raise a young generation of people who can make life better, develop themselves, their culture and their homeland, and protect the planet from wars and catastrophes. Russian education at all levels is the main tool in the implementation of this agenda, where the university should become for students a school of civil and moral education. However, the formal nature of higher education, the low involvement of university students in the process of choosing an individual professional trajectory and civic passivity do not allow achieving the goal and solving the problems of modern education, which ultimately affects the economic results of Russia. The purpose of this study is to identify opportunities and propose concrete solutions to resolve the contradictions between the need of society for active citizens and the insufficient manifestation of civic position of university graduates.
We have identified for the study the following pedagogical conditions for the effectiveness of the formation of citizenship of students: a high level of pedagogical and civic culture of teachers; the use of effective educational technologies, the creation of conditions for the motivation of civic behavior of students; phased interiorization of civil values in the course of specially organized value-orientation activities; integration of educational forces of the educational institution. In our opinion, the basic principles that determine the requirements for the implementation of the model of the formation of citizenship of students are the following: the principle of disclosing the civilian values of the profession; the principle of integration of cognitive, labor and social activities; the principle of interdisciplinary connections in the study of general and special disciplines; criterion-evaluative principle.
We have established that education in higher education will meet modern requirements if the following tasks are accomplished: 1) a deep theoretical understanding of the problems of civic education, the development of civic self-consciousness of young people; 2) development and implementation of special programs with the help of which it is possible to create conditions for the civil development and self-realization of a person, self-determination of young people in the system of life values, their self-organization in society; 3) the use of methods for the formation of civic values, the organization of civic activity, the stimulation of civic behavior of students in combination with interactive methods.
Key words: civic consciousness, system-forming values, interaction, socially significant goals, personal development, civic position, value orientations.
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Bizyuk A.P., Kats E.E., Kolosova T.A., Sorokin V.M. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE RESEARCH OF SPELLING COMPETENCE OF YOUNGER STUDENTSAs it is known, neuropsychological factors influence the formation of spelling competence in younger schoolchildren. Despite the long history of studying the brain mechanisms of writing, the question of the composition and functional connections of brain structures that assure the mastering of spelling skills and skills remains unresolved. In our study, 146 students of 3 classes took part. Written works were offered to children, with subsequent analysis of spelling errors. In parallel, a comprehensive neuropsychological study was conducted, which included 20 functional tests. According to the results of the survey of writing, we identified three groups of children: children with high spelling competence, children with low spelling competence, children with diorofography. At the next stage, a correlation analysis was conducted of data from a neuropsychological examination and indicators of the development of spelling skills in children with high spelling competence and children with diorofography. In the written works of children, the most significant difference in the number of mistakes made was revealed for the morphological principle of writing, and the absence of differences for the lexical-semantic one. The analysis of the obtained correlation graphs showed that in groups of children with different levels of orthographic competence formation, various structures of the interrelationship structure of spelling skills and the studied cognitive processes are revealed, that is, the morpho-functional brain prerequisites of spelling competence-incompetence differ significantly. The data obtained suggest that spelling errors associated with incomplete assimilation of various principles of spelling (morphological, traditional, grammatical, syllable-morphemic and lexico-semantic) have a different psychological basis of their occurrence.Key words: orthographic competence, neuropsychology, dysorphography, correlation analysis, cognitive processes, writing disorders.
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Physical-mathematical sciences

Alidzhanov E.K., Lantukh Yu.D, Letuta S.N., Pashkevitch S.N., Razdobreev D.A. THE EXCITATION ENERGY AND CHARGE TRANSFER IN DONOR-ACCEPTOR SYSTEMS BASED ON SEMICONDUCTOR POLYMERThe effectiveness of energy transfer process of photo-excitation in donor-acceptor (DA) systems formed from semiconductor polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) with the addition of simple and endohedral fullerenes were investigated. It is shown that the energy transfer efficiency in the systems formed in the form of dilute solutions is on several orders of magni-tude higher than the theoretically expected energy transfer efficiency by the diffusion-controlled mechanism. On the basis of comparison of experimentally measured spectra of electron absorption of Y@C82, C60 C70 toluene solutions and the MEH-PPV luminescence spectrum the corresponding Förster radii of resonance energy transfer were estimated. For the tested DA systems a significant effect of exciton mi-gration between polymer links on the process of luminescence quenching was estab-lished. It is shown that the DA system formed using endohedral fullerenes is most effective.Key words: donor-acceptor systems, resonance energy transfer, semiconductor polymer, fullerenes.
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Editor-in-chief
Zhanna Anatolievna
Ermakova

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